For migrants and refugees in Italy, identity data collection processes can “exacerbate existing biases, discrimination, or power imbalances.” Digital Identity in the Migration & Refugee Context analyzes the challenges arising from this digital ecosystem and identifies three major areas of concern: bureaucratic bias in identity systems; privacy and mistrusted systems; and organizational data responsibility. The report is co-authored by Mark Latonero (Principal Investigator), Keith Hiatt, Antonella Napolitano, Giulia Clericetti, and Melanie Penagos.
One key struggle is obtaining meaningful consent. Often, biometric data is collected as soon as migrants and refugees arrive in a new country, at a moment when they are vulnerable and overwhelmed. Language barriers exacerbate the issue, making it difficult to provide adequate context around rights to privacy. Identity data is collected inconsistently by different organizations, all of whose data protection and privacy practices vary widely.
"The systems that use identity data to classify individuals along political and economic lines can have lasting effects on their rights and freedoms."
–Digital Identity in the Migration & Refugee Context
While Digital Identity is grounded in the Italian context, it has implications for refugees and migrants’ data privacy globally. The authors offer recommendations for stakeholders—including international organizations, policymakers, civil society, technologists, and funders—seeking to build stronger data protections.
Report findings are based on interviews in Italy with refugees and migrants, local NGOs, government agencies, and international organizations. It was produced by Data & Society Research Institute, a New York City-based nonprofit focused on the societal implications of automated and data-centric technologies, and comes out of the long-standing Data & Society research project Human Rights, Data, and Migration. Previous reports from this project include Refugee Connectivity.
Research in Italy was supported by Data & Society’s local partner, Coalizione Italiana Libertà e Diritti Civili (CILD), a coalition of civil liberty organizations throughout Italy.
An Italian translation of this report is forthcoming and will be available here.